Glossary

Acid: inorganic molecule that donates hydrogen ions and increases the concentration of hydrogen ions in a solution.

Adhesion: attraction between water molecules and other molecules.

Anion:  A negatively charged ion.

Base: inorganic molecule that donates hydroxide ions or otherwise binds excess hydrogen ions and decreases the concentration of hydrogen ions in a solution.

Buffer: substance that prevents a change in pH by absorbing or releasing hydrogen or hydroxide ions.

Cation: A positively charged ion.

Chemical Energy: form of energy that is absorbed as chemical bonds form, stored as they are maintained, and released as they are broken.

Cohesion: intermolecular forces between water molecules caused by the polar nature of water; responsible for surface tension

Colloid: a mixture that is somewhat like a heavy solution

Covalent Bonds:  Form when two atoms share pairs of electrons. The shared electrons orbit the nuclei of both the bonding atoms; the overlap of electron clouds is the bond.

Electrical Energy: supplied by electrolytes in cells and body fluids, contributes to the voltage changes that help transmit impulses in nerve and muscle cells.

Endergonic: Chemical reactions that absorb more energy than they release.

Exergonic: Chemical reactions that release more energy than they absorb.

Heat Sink: a substance or object that absorbs and dissipates heat but does not experience a corresponding increase in temperature.

Hydrogen Bonds:  Occur when there is an attraction between two polar molecules, a hydrogen atom and an electronegative atom (e.g. nitrogen, oxygen).

Inorganic Compound: Substance that does not contain both carbon and hydrogen

Kinetic Energy: energy that matter possesses because of its motion.

Mechanical Energy: is stored in physical systems such as machines, engines, or the human body, directly powers the movement of matter.

Nonpolar Covalent Bonds:  Form between two atoms of the same element or between different elements that share electrons equally.

pH Scale: Scale ranging from zero to 14 that is inversely proportional to the concentration of hydrogen ions in a solution.

Polar Covalent Bonds: The electrons are unequally shared by the atoms because they are more attracted to one nucleus than the other.

Potential Energy: stored energy matter possesses because of the positioning or structure of its components.

Radiant Energy: is energy emitted and transmitted as waves rather than matter. These waves vary in length. The full spectrum of radiant energy is referred to as the electromagnetic spectrum.

Solute: A substance dissolved in another substance.

Solvent: substance capable of dissolving another substance.

Specific Heat: the amount of heat one gram of a substance must absorb or lose to change its temperature by one degree Celsius.

Surface Tension: tension at the surface of a body of liquid that prevents the molecules from separating; created by the attractive cohesive forces between the molecules of the liquid

Suspension: a liquid mixture in which a heavier substance is suspended temporarily in a liquid, but over time, settles out

Van der Waals Interactions: These weak attractions can occur between any two or more molecules and are dependent on slight fluctuations of the electron densities, which can lead to slight temporary dipoles around a molecule.

 

 

Grant and Other Information

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Text from BioBook licensed under CC BY NC SA and Boundless Biology Open Textbook licensed under CC BY SA. Modified by Courtney A. Harrington, Ph.D. for c3bc.
Text also from OpenStaxCollege licensed under CC BY 3.0. Modified by Alice Rudolph, M.A. for c3bc.
Additional text written by Traci Rutledge, M.S. and Kirsten Williford, Ph.D. for c3bc.
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